Breast Cancer (male)
Breast cancer is often thought of as a condition that only affects women, but men can also develop it.
Breast cancer in men is much less common than breast cancer in women, affecting just one in every 100,000 men in the UK.
The cancer develops in the small amount of breast tissue men have behind their nipples. The most common symptom is a hard, painless lump in one of the breasts.
However, it is important to note that the vast majority of breast lumps are due to a condition called gynaecomastia. This is a common, non-cancerous condition where male breast tissue becomes enlarged.
Breast cancer in men can also cause nipple problems, such as the nipple turning in on itself (retraction) or nipple discharge.
Read more about the symptoms of male breast cancer.
When to see your GP
You should always talk to your GP if you notice a lump in your breast, or you have problems affecting your nipples, such as discharge.
While these symptoms are unlikely to be caused by breast cancer, they should be investigated further.
Why it happens
The cause of male breast cancer is unclear, but factors known to increase your chances of developing the condition include:
- age – most cases affect men over 60 years of age
- having a family history of breast cancer (male or female)
- obesity – a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more
Read more about causes of breast cancer in men.
Who is affected
Breast cancer is much rarer in men than women. Only about 1 in 1000 men develop breast cancer in their lifetime.
Around 350-400 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in men in the UK every year. The condition is most often diagnosed in men aged 60-70.
Treating breast cancer in men
In most cases, surgery is used to remove the cancer along with a section of the breast. This is usually followed by a long-term course of hormone therapy using a medication called tamoxifen.
Tamoxifen helps to block the effects of hormones on breast tissue that are known to stimulate the growth of cancerous cells. It should help prevent the cancer from returning.
Read more about treating breast cancer in men.
The outlook for breast cancer is less good in men than in women. This is because there is reduced awareness of the condition and it may take longer to diagnose.
The survival rates for breast cancer in men largely depend on how far the cancer has spread before it is diagnosed. Breast cancer diagnosed at an early stage can often be treated successfully, but effective treatment is more difficult if the cancer has spread beyond the breast tissue.
Unfortunately, many cases are diagnosed after the cancer has already started to spread.
Read more about diagnosing breast cancer in men.